This article mainly talks about the technology of automatic parking from several aspects. The first part is the development history of automatic parking, the second part is the internal structure of automatic parking and the scheme of some manufacturers. It is worth noting that in different countries, the willingness to implement automation of different scenarios is different. The only certainty is that everyone does not like to park, specifically, does not like to find parking spaces and parking. This is the most urgent need in the entire car intelligent and automatic driving, and it is also an easy to cut.

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The first part of the development history of automatic parking

The parking assist system can be divided into three major stages, which are divided into passive, semi-autonomous parking assistance and fully automatic parking.

1) Passive: Remind the driver in front of the vehicle or obstacles behind the vehicle when parking. In the process of development, from the only early warning, the development of vehicles to the front of the forward movement detection also has early warning, adding visual images, adding auxiliary lines and warnings of surrounding blind areas. The most complicated now is the combination of two systems, including reversing radar +360 Two functions of looking around.

The passive type mainly uses the ultrasonic sensor + buzzer + HMI icon to remind the driver of external obstacles and prevent the vehicle from colliding when reversing. It generally consists of the following functions: anti-collision sound + image prompt, system for measuring the size of the parking space, Provides tips for turning angles, provides rear view images and guideline detection, and 360-degree viewing images.

Passive is a system that fully considers the cost. Low-cost ultrasonic sensors are used to detect obstacles when reversing. Generally, the distance is between 1 m and 1.5 m. Consumers have high acceptance of such systems.

2) Semi-active parking assistance

For consumers, gears need to be controlled, accelerated and decelerated, and the responsibility for the entire process needs to be borne. There are differences in HMI and parking space for each car company, and there is no difference in basic operations. JDPower's 2015 Driver Interactive Vehicle Experience (Dr IVE) Report shows that the "most useless new car technology" list is the third in the semi-automatic parking, and one-third of the owners are I won't try this feature because it doesn't do much.

3) Fully automatic parking

The most important evolution in the evolution from semi-automatic parking to fully automatic parking is that people do not need to be in the car, and they can only park their cars for parking. Here are some changes from semi-automatic to fully automatic.

Gear position: When the trajectory calculation needs to be adjusted during the parking process, if there is an unsuccessful situation, the system has the right to switch gears and realize the advance and retreat.

Acceleration: The system has no permission to accelerate itself.

Brake: Does the system control the brake system after a collision is detected.

It can be seen that this is basically the process in which the entire parking takes over all the work of the people.

Of course, in this part, people still need to find a parking space. The so-called Valet Parking, which is currently under study, is completely without the need to find the concept of that parking space. In some modes of charging operation, Valet Parking is given more meaning:

1. Automatic search of parking spaces: Vehicles automatically find empty parking spaces and find empty parking spaces.

2. Wireless charging of electric vehicles: wirelessly charging the battery.

3. Separation of parking spaces after charging is completed: After charging is completed, the system automatically releases the charging slots to other electric vehicles and seeks ordinary parking spaces.

4. Passengers call for use of the vehicle: Return the vehicle to everyone at the exit of the restricted operation scene.

The second part of the parking lot automatic parking structure

In fact, from passive assisted parking (L0) → semi-automatic parking (L1) → automatic parking (L2) → parking lot parking (between L3 and L4) is a step-by-step iteration and improvement process. The reason why the parking lot is automatically parked between L3 and L4 is that no one is involved, but it needs to be in a special scene and at a low speed. We break down what Valet Parking needs to do:

1. Communicate with the parking facility to obtain the location and number information of the parking spaces that can be assigned by the map and management system.

2. Perform positioning and path planning, and make independent decisions to determine past paths.

2.1 Perform low speed driverless driving to the parking space

2.2 Emergency braking when encountering obstacles (required in front and rear)

3. Automatic placement of the garage location

3.1 Detecting the information of the surrounding environment and parking spaces, and formulating the warehousing strategy

3.2 automatic turn into

3.3 If there is an emergency, brake


In general, infrastructure such as parking lots will be intelligent in the future, especially after establishing a computing cloud for local road allocation, and will interact and coordinate with all intelligent vehicles on the road. The future of automatic parking will involve collisions between many fields, enabling intelligent back-end systems and sports terminals to start the entire intelligent future.

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